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The inflation. The creating mechanism of all particles. What is the Spin?

Spin and Charge Transport

Abstract:

All particles in our universe are created by braking the symmetries of vacuum. The spin describes the properties related to the time-inverse breaking of an elementary particle.

 


Q. Is it possible that the origin of the electron spin is the rotation of the electron around itself??

Electron can not rotate around itself (its own axis)

 

An object should have parts in order to able to rotates around itself. The electron does not have parts!! Or an object should have a asymmetrical shape in order to able to rotates around itself. The electron does not have a shape!!

The rotation of electron around its own axis

When the electron has parts, the rotation can be seen. When the parts vanish, the rotation can not be distinguished.

The real electron is an elementary particle, which does not has parts. Therefore, electron can not rotate around its own axis.

An electron can rotate around another object like nuclear.

When the electron has asymmetrical shape, the rotation can be seen. When the shape is spherical, the rotation can not be distinguished.

The real electron dos not have a shape. Therefore, electron can not rotate around its own axis.

The electron shape is defined by its environment. It is fixed and it can not be rotated.

 

A. No. It is not correct assumption.

An electron does does not have parts and it does not have a defined shape. Therefore, it can not rotate around its own axis.

The electron is an elementary particle and it does have any parts. Therefore, the electron can not be rotated around itself

The rotation of an object around itself literally means that the parts of the object rotates relatively each other. In case when the object is monolithic without any parts, it can not be rotated around itself, because there is nothing, which could be rotated.

An electron may rotate around another object. For example, in an atom an electron rotates around a nuclear.

An electron has length, which equals to the electron mean-free path. The length of conduction electrons in a semiconductor could be as long as micrometers. In a metal, the electron length is about of a few nanometers. A localized electron has a size of atom, which is about ~0.1 nm. An electron has a width as well. It is defined by electron wave vector and the mean-free path.

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Note:

The spin and charge are two independent features of the electron. For example, when two electrons of opposite spin occupy one quantum state. The state has the charge of -2e, but no spin. The neutron has no charge, but it has the spin.

 

Incorrect view: The spin of electron is not due to the movement (the rotation) of charge inside the electron.

The spin of electron is not due to the charge of the electron.!!!!! It is due the time-inverse breaking for the electron!!

However, the magnetic moment of electron is because the electron is a charged elementary particle.



 

All particles in Universe are created by breaking of spatial symmetry of vacuum.(See Fig. 10)

When additionally the time-inverse symmetry of vacuum is broken, an elementary particle has the Spin.

 



 

Spin & the time-inverse symmetry

The time-inverse symmetry breaking is the most common and simple breaking of symmetry of the vacuum. Therefore, nearly all particles have the spin

 

Since the spin describes the breaking of the time-inverse symmetry, there are only two possible spin eigen values for any elementary particle!! For this reason, the spin of an elementary particle is described maximum by two wave functions. Often it is called states of the left-rotation and the state of the right-rotation. In case of an electron, the states are called the spin-up and spin-down states. In the case of a photon, the states correspond to left- and right circular polarized photon.

The time-inverse symmetry symmetry of the vacuum is not broken. Therefore, the spin can interact with the field, which time-symmetry symmetry is broken, and the result of such interaction should be the time-inverse symmetric. The time-inverse symmetry symmetry of the magnetic field is broken. As result, the spin interacts with the magnetic field.

The spatial

If an elementary particle with the spin is not charged (like the neutrino), does it interact with magnetic field?

The magnetic field represents the time-inverse-breaking part of the electromagnetic interaction. The neutrino, which does not interact electromagnetically, should not interact with the magnetic field. However, the common origin of the weak and the electromagnetic interactions, it could be some a very weak interaction of the neutrino with a magnetic field.

 

 

 

 

In atom an electron is circulating around a proton. Why a reversed atom, where a proton is circulating around an electron, can not be observed? Is that because of the differences of masses (the proton is heavier)?

It is because the electron is an elementary particle, but the proton is a composite particle, which consists of three quarks. The electron can not have a fix tiny length (size), but a composite particle is more close to a point-like particle. Because the proton is a composite particle, its mass is ~2000 times larger than mass of the electron. The difference of masses has some influence, but it is not major influence. For example, the proton has a diameter about 1 femtometer. It is defined by a longest- possible length of a gluon.

See Wikipedia about point-like particles (There are many parts, with which I do not agree)

 

 

 


 

Symmetry breaking: the path of path of creation of all matter in our Universe

 

 

 

 

From simplest (symmetrical) to complex

All elementary particle are originated from breaking a symmetry of vacuum

The spin of any particle is originated from breaking the time-inverse symmetry of vacuum.

The vacuum is are absolutely symmetrical and simplest staff. Any elementary particles comes from breaking some of different symmetries of the vacuum. Click on image to enlarge it

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Evolution from symmetric to complex and less symmetric

Both the evolution of life and the evolution of matter is a pass from simplest and very symmetric to complex and less symmetric

evolution of life
evolution of matter

 

The evolution of life and the matter is constant breaking of the symmetry.

The spin is due to the breaking of the time- inverse symmetry.

Click on image to enlarge it

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 


 

The Greatest Discovery of 21st century!!

Undoubtable proof that the the inflation is the creation mechanism of all matter in the Universe is the Greatest discovery of the 21st century

Even though we are now in the first quarter of the 21 century, it is clear that the proof that the the inflation is the creation mechanism of all matter in the Universe is the greatest discovery of this century. It is because all known laws of Physics and our present understanding of the Universe should be adjusted to this important fact.

The inflation - the mechanism of the creation of all matter in the Universe.

The inflation explains how all matter was created in our Universe.

 

The model of the inflation was introduced in70th-80th as the model of the launching mechanism of the Big Bang. At beginning, the accelerating expansion of the Universe at earliest time of our Universe was called the inflation.

Now there are several proofs that the sum of all energies of the Universe (the positive energy of all matter and the negative energy of gravitational attractions between all matter) equals to exact zero. It proves that all matter in Universe was created from vacuum (from nothing) during inflation time.

 

How the fact of inflation influences the Law of Physics?

1. It explains many facts, which were experimentally found before and which postulated the Quantum Mechanics and the Standard Model.

2. It slightly modifies all laws of Physics to comply to the important fact that all particles should be generated from vacuum and they be able to annihilate into vacuum.

 

The Facts of Physics, which are consequence of the Inflation origin of our Universe:

(1) All elementary particles in the Universe are waves. There are no point-like particles

proof: Any existed particle should be created from vacuum. The mechanism how to create a wave-like particle is clear (See Fig.10). There is no any known mechanism, which could create a point-like particle from vacuum.

(2) An elementary particle does not have a fixed size. The size of the elementary particle is determined by its environment

proof:Since any elementary particle is a wave, the size of the wave is the size of the wave package. The size of the elementary particle is determined by the process how the elementary particle is created from vacuum (See Fig. 4).

It is the basic principle, which is postulated by the Quantum Mechanics.

(3) All forces of the nature (except the gravitation force) are originated from the processes of creation of particles from the vacuum and processes of annihilation of particles into vacuum

proof:When two particles are relatively far from each other and their wave functions are not overcrossed, only possible way of their interaction is by generating and annihilating of other particles. For example, the electrical interaction between two electrons is mediated by a photon.

(4) An elementary particle does not have parts. An elementary particle does not interact with itself.

proof:

(5) Elementary particles do not transform into each other abruptly. The process of transforming from particle to particle is continuous.

proof:Since any

(6) Any interaction between particles (except gravitational interaction) significantly changes when the distance between particles becomes smaller than their size. Any interaction between two particles are finite, even if distance between two particles approaches to zero.

proof:The classical physics states that any interaction between particles (gravitational or electromagnetic interaction) is infinite, when distance between two particles is zero. Since all particles are cracked from vacuum, initially before cracking two particles of opposite phase should be at exactly the same location (therefore, they form the vacuum). However, in the case if the interaction between these two particles (including gravitational interaction and the electromagnetic interaction) is infinite, the particle cold not ever be moved away from each other and any particle could not be created.

 

 

 

 


How create particles from vacuum?

When two waves of opposite phase experience different force, they move in different positions and two particles are created from vacuum (from nothing)

Get something from "nothing" (from vacuum)
Creation of two particle by Cracking the vacuum
The sum of two waves, which have phase difference of 180 degrees, is the zero or nothing
The red and blue waves are in anti phase (180 degrees phase difference). At beginning, they are at exactly same point and their sum is "nothing" or vacuum. Next, due to some reason the red and blue interact differently with some particle. This difference causes a little bit difference in movement of the red and blue waves. The position of blue and red waves become different and two individual particle is created from vacuum.

Fig. 10 The creation of two particles from vacuum

The creation of two particles is a breaking of spacial symmetry. In case when the waves are in the x-axis direction, the breaking of the symmetry is in the x-direction.

Click on image to enlarge it

fact 1: All elementary particles in the Universe are waves. There are no point-like particles

proof: Any existed particle should be created from vacuum. The mechanism how to create a wave-like particle is clear (See Fig.10). There is no any known mechanism, which could create a point-like particle from vacuum.

How to create a particle from vacuum?

The sum of two waves, which are exactly the same but have phase difference of 180 degrees, is the zero or nothing or vacuum (See Fig.10 left). When the waves stay at an exactly the same point, they form the vacuum or nothing. In this case two waves are not yet particle, but they are a "virtual possibility for creation of particles". If there is a force, which interacts differently with the wave of opposite phase, two waves move in different locations and from virtual they become real particles

. Two waves of opposite phase are very similar. How it is possible that they interact differently with the field?

For example, two particles of opposite phase may have different charge. Than, in an electrical field they move in opposite directions.

if in a electrical field, the particle are so easily created, why do not we observe the creation of a huge number of particles in an electrical field?

From a view of a classic physics, the attraction between two particles of opposite charge are infinite, when the particles are located at the same point. It requires an infinite electrical field in order to move the particles away from each other. The case of real quantum world is different. Still the process of the creation of a particle from a vacuum is very subtle process, which requires existence of additional one, two or more particles at the same location.

 

Cases of creation of particles from vacuum:

case 1. The electromagnetic interaction

in this case a charged particle breaks a photon from vacuum. The photon reaches the second charge particle and annihilate itself (it is converted back into vacuum) at the location of the second charged particle. As result, two charged particles repel or attract each other.

case 2. The strong interaction

in this case a quark breaks a gluon from vacuum. The gluon reaches the second quark and annihilate itself (it is converted back into vacuum) at its location. As result, two quarks attract each other.

case 3. The weak interaction

in this case three quarks (u-,d-,d-) breaks a W- boson from vacuum. Next, the W- boson breaks an electron, a neutrino and a quark from the vacuum. As result, a neutron (u-,d-,d-) beta- decays into a proton (u-,u-,d-), an electron and a neutrino.

case 4. The dark energy

It is the energy of the vacuum, which fills up all Universe. The dark energy is only a substance in the Universe, which was not created during the inflation. The origin of the dark energy is the short-leave particles, which are broken from the vacuum.

There is a very small, but a finite probability that particles are broken from the vacuum. However, if there is no other particle in their proximity, these two particles quickly annihilate back into vacuum. The gravitation of these short-live particles has a substantial influence on our Universe. Even though the probability of such particles from is very small and life time of these particles is very short, in cosmological scale their gravitation is strong and it causes the accelerating expansion of our Universe. It is because these short-lived particles are created at all points of space.

case 5. The inflation

It is a self-sustained process of constant breaking of particles from vacuum. During the inflation, the particles, which are just created, make the conditions for the breaking additional particles from vacuum. These particles make another particles and so on. During inflation the number of particles increases exponentially. All substance of our Universe, except the dark energy, were created during the Inflation.

The conditions to keep self-sustained breaking of vacuum is extremely subtle. The accelerating expansion of the Universe and an extremely high density of particles are the key conditions to keep self-sustained breaking of vacuum. Only about 100-200 consequence breaking of particles by new- created particles occurred during the Inflation. It was sufficient to create all matter in our Universe.

 

The conditions, at which particles can broken from vacuum, are very subtle. First of all, all Conservation Laws should be satisfied!!!

Q. The vacuum energy is zero. When two particles are broken from vacuum, each particle has the energy mc² . How the energy is conserved during this process?

A. The particles have a positive energy, which the sum of the kinetic energy and mc². The attraction energy between particles is negative energy. The energy of the gravitational attraction is always negative. If charge of particles is opposite, the energy of the Coulomb attraction is also negative. It is very important that during breaking the particles from vacuum the total energy is always zero. As it has been proved already the sum of all energies in our Universe exactly equals to zero. That means that during all existence of our Universe and after unimaginable number of breaking of particles from vacuum the Conservation of the energy has never been compromised.

Of course, in the case when another particle participating in breaking of particles from vacuum, its energy can be transferred into the energy of new particles.

 



 


 

Fig.4. Length of photon

Emission of photon by an excited atom

A photon is emitted only between two subsequent colliding or scattering of the excited atom. Next, another photon is emitted.

The length of the photon is determined by time between two subsequent scatterings of the excited atom.

Similarly the effective length of an electron is determined by time between two subsequent scatterings of the electron.

The photons are in yellow color. The red balls are atoms (molecules).

Click on image to enlarge it or here for a middle size

fact 2. An elementary particle does not have a fixed size. The size of the elementary particle is determined by its environment

proof:Since any elementary particle is a wave, the size of the wave is the size of the wave package.

 

Length of a photon

It is called the photon coherence length. It is important characteristic of any light source. Simply it could be understood as an average length of wave packages in an optical beam.

In my optical experiments I use light sources of different coherence length. I use Santec tunable laser at lambda=1550 nm. Its light has the coherence length longer than 1 meter. I have a tunable Ti:sapphire laser. When I bought it it has a very short coherence length less than one millimeter. I have installed additional option in order to increase the coherence length. Now the the coherence length of light from this laser is a few centimeters. The coherence length of light from a light bulb is about 0.1 millimeter.

 

Length of an electron

The electron is a wave. Its length is not fixed, but it is determined by the electron environment.

In a conductor, the the effective length of a conduction electron equals to its mean-free path λmean or a distance between two subsequent electron scatterings. It is between 10 nm and 1000 nm in a semiconductor and between 1 nm and 10 nm in a metal.

 

The size of a localized electron equals to the size of atom (~0.1 nm).

 

 

 


 

fact 3. An elementary particle does not have a fixed size. The size of the elementary particle is determined by its environment

proof: An elementary particle is a wave package, which length is the distance between two consequence scatterings of the particle or the distance between two events of the interaction of the particle with other particles.

 

For example, the electrons is

(1) 1-10 um in a high-crystal quality semiconductor.

(2) 10-100 nm in a metal

(3) 0.1 nm in an atom

 

 


The size of elementary particle and forces of the nature

The size of elementary particle matters for its interaction with other particles!!

An interaction between two particles depends on their size

Click on image to enlarge it

Important point: The forces between particles depend on the size of particles

The classical physics and the standard model postulate that all forces between particles (the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, the strong force and the weak force) depends on the distance between particles and some parameter of the particle (the mass, the electrical and color charge).

An elementary particle does not have parts, it attracts or repel other particle as a whole. There are no parts of the particle, which could interact with other particle individually.

The interaction between particles (except gravitational interaction) is always mediated by a creation and annihilation of another particle from the vacuum.

(1) electromagnetic interaction is mediated by

 

 

 

 

 

 



Elementary Particles of Standard Model

The Standard model assumes that our Universe consists of above-set of the elementary particles of fix like properties the energy, spin, charge, rest mass, color charge etc.. The interactions between these particles describes all processes in our Universe

The "post- Standard" model describes all elementary particles as a "stable" "stand-alone" states of symmetry breaking. The parameters of each particle (rest mass, spin etc.) are just degree (amount) of breaking of a specific symmetry, at which a set of broken symmetries are locally stable.
Click on image to enlarge it

Standard model and "post- Standard model"

The Standard Model of particle physics

The Standard Model assumes that our Universe consists of a finite set of a particles. All possible processes and events in our Universe are only interactions between those particles. Each particle has very fixed number of properties like the energy, spin, charge, rest mass, color charge etc.. These properties of an elementary particle are firmly fixed and are the internal features of each particle. The interactions between these particles describes all processes in our Universe.

The elementary particle may be transformed between each other when they crash into each other at a high energy. In this case one elementary particle disappears into nowhere and another particle appears from nowhere. There is only one limitation for this process: The Conservation Laws. As soon as all required conservation Laws are hold, the transformation between elementary particles occurs.

 

The "post- Standard" Model 

The "post-Standard" Model assumes that our University has a set of different symmetries. One of symmetries or several symmetries can broken locally. The breaking of symmetry is hard and the symmetry is trying to return to its unbroken state. However, some rare cases exists when several symmetries can be broken simultaneously and this set of the broken symmetries is locally stable. This stand-alone set of broken symmetries is called an elementary particle. The conditions, at which a set of broken symmetries are locally stable, is subtle and can be possible at very specific parameters or at very specific degree (amount) of breaking of a specific symmetry. This is why each elementary particle has specific parameter (rest mass, spin etc.)

 

Symmetry & Conservation Laws

Emma Noether (1882-1935)

She is the first who pointed that the symmetry and the breaking of the symmetry are the major mechanisms (maybe only mechanisms) governing our Universe

She is the Mother of "post Standard Model" understating of our Universe
She proved that each existed conservation Law corresponds to one type of the Symmetry of our Universe.
See video here , Wiki is here

Each Conservation Law of Physics always corresponds to one of the continues symmetry of our Universe

This rule was discovered by Emma Noether. This discovery is one of greatest discoveries in Physics. Along the Quantum Mechanics and the Theory of relativity, it made a largest impact on our modern understanding of our Universe.
See Noether's Theorem here

Examples:

The time transfer symmetry The energy conservation law

The time transfer symmetry The momentum conservation law

The time-inverse symmetry The spin conservation law

The phase symmetry of electron wavefunctionThe electrical-charge conservation law

 

 

 


 

 

 


 

How two elemental particles (two electrons) are transformed into one elementary particle ("full" state)?

Fig.3. Two electrons of opposite spins, when combined, form an elementary particle without spin.

Each quantum state can be occupied by two electrons of opposite spins.

When a quantum state is occupied by one electron, it is an elementary particle with charge -e and spin=1/2

When a quantum state is occupied by two electrons, it is an elementary particle with charge -2e and spin=0

click here to enlarge

Since all known elementary particles are waves, it is very common that during an interaction between them, the number of particles changes. For example, the result of interaction of an electron and a positron is only a photon.

All matter in the universe was created literally from nothing 13.8 billion years ago during the inflation period.

Creation or annihilation of particles waves is very common process. How two particles (waves) can be created from nothing could be understood as follows: When there are two absolutely identical waves, but phase shifted 180 degrees relatively each other, their sum gives zero or nothing. Therefore, two particles (for example, an electron and a positron) can combine that result will be nothing. Similarly, if some force changes the phase shift between particles from 180 degrees to any other, from nothing two particles can be created.

 

Mathematically the process when two electrons of opposite spins combine and create one elementary particle without spin ("full" state) can be understood as follows.

Two electrons with opposite spins, which occupy different states, are described by two spinors

They are described by different sets of coordinates (x1,y1,z1) and (x2,y2,z2). It means they are two elementary particles, which interact with other.

When these two electrons of opposite spins occupy one state, they are described by a scalar wave function, which is product of spinors (1.1) and (1.2)

It is important that the scalar wave function (1.3) is described by one set of coordinate. It means (1.3) describes one elementary particle.

More about spin basic properties see here

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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