more Chapters on this topic:IntroductionTransport Eqs.Spin Proximity/ Spin InjectionSpin DetectionBoltzmann Eqs.Band currentScattering currentMeanfree pathCurrent near InterfaceOrdinary Hall effectAnomalous Hall effect, AMR effectSpinOrbit interactionSpin Hall effectNonlocal Spin DetectionLandau Lifshitz equationExchange interactionspd exchange interactionCoercive fieldPerpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA)Voltage controlled magnetism (VCMA effect)Allmetal transistorSpinorbit torque (SO torque)What is a hole?spin polarizationCharge accumulationMgObased MTJMagnetoopticsSpin vs Orbital momentWhat is the Spin?model comparisonQuestions & AnswersEB nanotechnologyReticle 11
more Chapters on this topic:IntroductionTransport Eqs.Spin Proximity/ Spin InjectionSpin DetectionBoltzmann Eqs.Band currentScattering currentMeanfree pathCurrent near InterfaceOrdinary Hall effectAnomalous Hall effect, AMR effectSpinOrbit interactionSpin Hall effectNonlocal Spin DetectionLandau Lifshitz equationExchange interactionspd exchange interactionCoercive fieldPerpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA)Voltage controlled magnetism (VCMA effect)Allmetal transistorSpinorbit torque (SO torque)What is a hole?spin polarizationCharge accumulationMgObased MTJMagnetoopticsSpin vs Orbital momentWhat is the Spin?model comparisonQuestions & AnswersEB nanotechnologyReticle 11
more Chapters on this topic:IntroductionTransport Eqs.Spin Proximity/ Spin InjectionSpin DetectionBoltzmann Eqs.Band currentScattering currentMeanfree pathCurrent near InterfaceOrdinary Hall effectAnomalous Hall effect, AMR effectSpinOrbit interactionSpin Hall effectNonlocal Spin DetectionLandau Lifshitz equationExchange interactionspd exchange interactionCoercive fieldPerpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA)Voltage controlled magnetism (VCMA effect)Allmetal transistorSpinorbit torque (SO torque)What is a hole?spin polarizationCharge accumulationMgObased MTJMagnetoopticsSpin vs Orbital momentWhat is the Spin?model comparisonQuestions & AnswersEB nanotechnologyReticle 11

The inflation. The creating mechanism of all particles. What is the Spin?
Spin and Charge TransportAbstract:All particles in our universe are created by braking the symmetries of vacuum. The spin describes the properties related to the timeinverse breaking of an elementary particle.Q. Is it possible that the origin of the electron spin is the rotation of the electron around itself??
A. No. It is not correct assumption. An electron does does not have parts and it does not have a defined shape. Therefore, it can not rotate around its own axis. The electron is an elementary particle and it does have any parts. Therefore, the electron can not be rotated around itself The rotation of an object around itself literally means that the parts of the object rotates relatively each other. In case when the object is monolithic without any parts, it can not be rotated around itself, because there is nothing, which could be rotated. An electron may rotate around another object. For example, in an atom an electron rotates around a nuclear. An electron has length, which equals to the electron meanfree path. The length of conduction electrons in a semiconductor could be as long as micrometers. In a metal, the electron length is about of a few nanometers. A localized electron has a size of atom, which is about ~0.1 nm. An electron has a width as well. It is defined by electron wave vector and the meanfree path. 
Note: The spin and charge are two independent features of the electron. For example, when two electrons of opposite spin occupy one quantum state. The state has the charge of 2e, but no spin. The neutron has no charge, but it has the spin.
Incorrect view: The spin of electron is not due to the movement (the rotation) of charge inside the electron. The spin of electron is not due to the charge of the electron.!!!!! It is due the timeinverse breaking for the electron!!However, the magnetic moment of electron is because the electron is a charged elementary particle.
All particles in Universe are created by breaking of spatial symmetry of vacuum.(See Fig. 10) When additionally the timeinverse symmetry of vacuum is broken, an elementary particle has the Spin.
Spin & the timeinverse symmetryThe timeinverse symmetry breaking is the most common and simple breaking of symmetry of the vacuum. Therefore, nearly all particles have the spin
Since the spin describes the breaking of the timeinverse symmetry, there are only two possible spin eigen values for any elementary particle!! For this reason, the spin of an elementary particle is described maximum by two wave functions. Often it is called states of the leftrotation and the state of the rightrotation. In case of an electron, the states are called the spinup and spindown states. In the case of a photon, the states correspond to left and right circular polarized photon. The timeinverse symmetry symmetry of the vacuum is not broken. Therefore, the spin can interact with the field, which timesymmetry symmetry is broken, and the result of such interaction should be the timeinverse symmetric. The timeinverse symmetry symmetry of the magnetic field is broken. As result, the spin interacts with the magnetic field. The spatial If an elementary particle with the spin is not charged (like the neutrino), does it interact with magnetic field?The magnetic field represents the timeinversebreaking part of the electromagnetic interaction. The neutrino, which does not interact electromagnetically, should not interact with the magnetic field. However, the common origin of the weak and the electromagnetic interactions, it could be some a very weak interaction of the neutrino with a magnetic field.
In atom an electron is circulating around a proton. Why a reversed atom, where a proton is circulating around an electron, can not be observed? Is that because of the differences of masses (the proton is heavier)?It is because the electron is an elementary particle, but the proton is a composite particle, which consists of three quarks. The electron can not have a fix tiny length (size), but a composite particle is more close to a pointlike particle. Because the proton is a composite particle, its mass is ~2000 times larger than mass of the electron. The difference of masses has some influence, but it is not major influence. For example, the proton has a diameter about 1 femtometer. It is defined by a longest possible length of a gluon. See Wikipedia about pointlike particles (There are many parts, with which I do not agree)
Symmetry breaking: the path of path of creation of all matter in our Universe
The inflation  the mechanism of the creation of all matter in the Universe.The inflation explains how all matter was created in our Universe.
The model of the inflation was introduced in70th80th as the model of the launching mechanism of the Big Bang. At beginning, the accelerating expansion of the Universe at earliest time of our Universe was called the inflation. Now there are several proofs that the sum of all energies of the Universe (the positive energy of all matter and the negative energy of gravitational attractions between all matter) equals to exact zero. It proves that all matter in Universe was created from vacuum (from nothing) during inflation time.
How the fact of inflation influences the Law of Physics?1. It explains many facts, which were experimentally found before and which postulated the Quantum Mechanics and the Standard Model.2. It slightly modifies all laws of Physics to comply to the important fact that all particles should be generated from vacuum and they be able to annihilate into vacuum.
The Facts of Physics, which are consequence of the Inflation origin of our Universe:(1) All elementary particles in the Universe are waves. There are no pointlike particlesproof: Any existed particle should be created from vacuum. The mechanism how to create a wavelike particle is clear (See Fig.10). There is no any known mechanism, which could create a pointlike particle from vacuum. (2) An elementary particle does not have a fixed size. The size of the elementary particle is determined by its environmentproof:Since any elementary particle is a wave, the size of the wave is the size of the wave package. The size of the elementary particle is determined by the process how the elementary particle is created from vacuum (See Fig. 4). It is the basic principle, which is postulated by the Quantum Mechanics.(3) All forces of the nature (except the gravitation force) are originated from the processes of creation of particles from the vacuum and processes of annihilation of particles into vacuumproof:When two particles are relatively far from each other and their wave functions are not overcrossed, only possible way of their interaction is by generating and annihilating of other particles. For example, the electrical interaction between two electrons is mediated by a photon. (4) An elementary particle does not have parts. An elementary particle does not interact with itself.proof: (5) Elementary particles do not transform into each other abruptly. The process of transforming from particle to particle is continuous.proof:Since any (6) Any interaction between particles (except gravitational interaction) significantly changes when the distance between particles becomes smaller than their size. Any interaction between two particles are finite, even if distance between two particles approaches to zero.proof:The classical physics states that any interaction between particles (gravitational or electromagnetic interaction) is infinite, when distance between two particles is zero. Since all particles are cracked from vacuum, initially before cracking two particles of opposite phase should be at exactly the same location (therefore, they form the vacuum). However, in the case if the interaction between these two particles (including gravitational interaction and the electromagnetic interaction) is infinite, the particle cold not ever be moved away from each other and any particle could not be created.
fact 1: All elementary particles in the Universe are waves. There are no pointlike particlesproof: Any existed particle should be created from vacuum. The mechanism how to create a wavelike particle is clear (See Fig.10). There is no any known mechanism, which could create a pointlike particle from vacuum. How to create a particle from vacuum?The sum of two waves, which are exactly the same but have phase difference of 180 degrees, is the zero or nothing or vacuum (See Fig.10 left). When the waves stay at an exactly the same point, they form the vacuum or nothing. In this case two waves are not yet particle, but they are a "virtual possibility for creation of particles". If there is a force, which interacts differently with the wave of opposite phase, two waves move in different locations and from virtual they become real particles . Two waves of opposite phase are very similar. How it is possible that they interact differently with the field?For example, two particles of opposite phase may have different charge. Than, in an electrical field they move in opposite directions. if in a electrical field, the particle are so easily created, why do not we observe the creation of a huge number of particles in an electrical field?From a view of a classic physics, the attraction between two particles of opposite charge are infinite, when the particles are located at the same point. It requires an infinite electrical field in order to move the particles away from each other. The case of real quantum world is different. Still the process of the creation of a particle from a vacuum is very subtle process, which requires existence of additional one, two or more particles at the same location.
Cases of creation of particles from vacuum: case 1. The electromagnetic interactionin this case a charged particle breaks a photon from vacuum. The photon reaches the second charge particle and annihilate itself (it is converted back into vacuum) at the location of the second charged particle. As result, two charged particles repel or attract each other. case 2. The strong interactionin this case a quark breaks a gluon from vacuum. The gluon reaches the second quark and annihilate itself (it is converted back into vacuum) at its location. As result, two quarks attract each other. case 3. The weak interactionin this case three quarks (u,d,d) breaks a W boson from vacuum. Next, the W boson breaks an electron, a neutrino and a quark from the vacuum. As result, a neutron (u,d,d) beta decays into a proton (u,u,d), an electron and a neutrino. case 4. The dark energyIt is the energy of the vacuum, which fills up all Universe. The dark energy is only a substance in the Universe, which was not created during the inflation. The origin of the dark energy is the shortleave particles, which are broken from the vacuum. There is a very small, but a finite probability that particles are broken from the vacuum. However, if there is no other particle in their proximity, these two particles quickly annihilate back into vacuum. The gravitation of these shortlive particles has a substantial influence on our Universe. Even though the probability of such particles from is very small and life time of these particles is very short, in cosmological scale their gravitation is strong and it causes the accelerating expansion of our Universe. It is because these shortlived particles are created at all points of space. case 5. The inflationIt is a selfsustained process of constant breaking of particles from vacuum. During the inflation, the particles, which are just created, make the conditions for the breaking additional particles from vacuum. These particles make another particles and so on. During inflation the number of particles increases exponentially. All substance of our Universe, except the dark energy, were created during the Inflation. The conditions to keep selfsustained breaking of vacuum is extremely subtle. The accelerating expansion of the Universe and an extremely high density of particles are the key conditions to keep selfsustained breaking of vacuum. Only about 100200 consequence breaking of particles by new created particles occurred during the Inflation. It was sufficient to create all matter in our Universe.
The conditions, at which particles can broken from vacuum, are very subtle. First of all, all Conservation Laws should be satisfied!!!Q. The vacuum energy is zero. When two particles are broken from vacuum, each particle has the energy mc² . How the energy is conserved during this process?A. The particles have a positive energy, which the sum of the kinetic energy and mc². The attraction energy between particles is negative energy. The energy of the gravitational attraction is always negative. If charge of particles is opposite, the energy of the Coulomb attraction is also negative. It is very important that during breaking the particles from vacuum the total energy is always zero. As it has been proved already the sum of all energies in our Universe exactly equals to zero. That means that during all existence of our Universe and after unimaginable number of breaking of particles from vacuum the Conservation of the energy has never been compromised. Of course, in the case when another particle participating in breaking of particles from vacuum, its energy can be transferred into the energy of new particles.
fact 2. An elementary particle does not have a fixed size. The size of the elementary particle is determined by its environmentproof:Since any elementary particle is a wave, the size of the wave is the size of the wave package.
Length of a photon It is called the photon coherence length. It is important characteristic of any light source. Simply it could be understood as an average length of wave packages in an optical beam. In my optical experiments I use light sources of different coherence length. I use Santec tunable laser at lambda=1550 nm. Its light has the coherence length longer than 1 meter. I have a tunable Ti:sapphire laser. When I bought it it has a very short coherence length less than one millimeter. I have installed additional option in order to increase the coherence length. Now the the coherence length of light from this laser is a few centimeters. The coherence length of light from a light bulb is about 0.1 millimeter.
Length of an electron The electron is a wave. Its length is not fixed, but it is determined by the electron environment. In a conductor, the the effective length of a conduction electron equals to its meanfree path λ_{mean} or a distance between two subsequent electron scatterings. It is between 10 nm and 1000 nm in a semiconductor and between 1 nm and 10 nm in a metal.
The size of a localized electron equals to the size of atom (~0.1 nm).
fact 3. An elementary particle does not have a fixed size. The size of the elementary particle is determined by its environmentproof: An elementary particle is a wave package, which length is the distance between two consequence scatterings of the particle or the distance between two events of the interaction of the particle with other particles.
For example, the electrons is (1) 110 um in a highcrystal quality semiconductor. (2) 10100 nm in a metal (3) 0.1 nm in an atom
The size of elementary particle and forces of the nature
Important point: The forces between particles depend on the size of particlesThe classical physics and the standard model postulate that all forces between particles (the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, the strong force and the weak force) depends on the distance between particles and some parameter of the particle (the mass, the electrical and color charge). An elementary particle does not have parts, it attracts or repel other particle as a whole. There are no parts of the particle, which could interact with other particle individually. The interaction between particles (except gravitational interaction) is always mediated by a creation and annihilation of another particle from the vacuum. (1) electromagnetic interaction is mediated by
Standard model and "post Standard model"The Standard Model of particle physicsThe Standard Model assumes that our Universe consists of a finite set of a particles. All possible processes and events in our Universe are only interactions between those particles. Each particle has very fixed number of properties like the energy, spin, charge, rest mass, color charge etc.. These properties of an elementary particle are firmly fixed and are the internal features of each particle. The interactions between these particles describes all processes in our Universe. The elementary particle may be transformed between each other when they crash into each other at a high energy. In this case one elementary particle disappears into nowhere and another particle appears from nowhere. There is only one limitation for this process: The Conservation Laws. As soon as all required conservation Laws are hold, the transformation between elementary particles occurs.
The "post Standard" ModelThe "postStandard" Model assumes that our University has a set of different symmetries. One of symmetries or several symmetries can broken locally. The breaking of symmetry is hard and the symmetry is trying to return to its unbroken state. However, some rare cases exists when several symmetries can be broken simultaneously and this set of the broken symmetries is locally stable. This standalone set of broken symmetries is called an elementary particle. The conditions, at which a set of broken symmetries are locally stable, is subtle and can be possible at very specific parameters or at very specific degree (amount) of breaking of a specific symmetry. This is why each elementary particle has specific parameter (rest mass, spin etc.)
Symmetry & Conservation Laws
Each Conservation Law of Physics always corresponds to one of the continues symmetry of our UniverseThis rule was discovered by Emma Noether. This discovery is one of greatest discoveries in Physics. Along the Quantum Mechanics and the Theory of relativity, it made a largest impact on our modern understanding of our Universe.See Noether's Theorem hereExamples: The time transfer symmetry The energy conservation law The time transfer symmetry The momentum conservation law The timeinverse symmetry The spin conservation law The phase symmetry of electron wavefunctionThe electricalcharge conservation law
How two elemental particles (two electrons) are transformed into one elementary particle ("full" state)?
Since all known elementary particles are waves, it is very common that during an interaction between them, the number of particles changes. For example, the result of interaction of an electron and a positron is only a photon. All matter in the universe was created literally from nothing 13.8 billion years ago during the inflation period. Creation or annihilation of particles waves is very common process. How two particles (waves) can be created from nothing could be understood as follows: When there are two absolutely identical waves, but phase shifted 180 degrees relatively each other, their sum gives zero or nothing. Therefore, two particles (for example, an electron and a positron) can combine that result will be nothing. Similarly, if some force changes the phase shift between particles from 180 degrees to any other, from nothing two particles can be created.
Mathematically the process when two electrons of opposite spins combine and create one elementary particle without spin ("full" state) can be understood as follows. Two electrons with opposite spins, which occupy different states, are described by two spinors They are described by different sets of coordinates (x1,y1,z1) and (x2,y2,z2). It means they are two elementary particles, which interact with other. When these two electrons of opposite spins occupy one state, they are described by a scalar wave function, which is product of spinors (1.1) and (1.2) It is important that the scalar wave function (1.3) is described by one set of coordinate. It means (1.3) describes one elementary particle. More about spin basic properties see here
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