more Chapters on this topic:IntroductionTransport Eqs.Spin Proximity/ Spin InjectionSpin DetectionBoltzmann Eqs.Band currentScattering currentMeanfree pathCurrent near InterfaceOrdinary Hall effectAnomalous Hall effect, AMR effectSpinOrbit interactionSpin Hall effectNonlocal Spin DetectionLandau Lifshitz equationExchange interactionspd exchange interactionCoercive fieldPerpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA)Voltage controlled magnetism (VCMA effect)Allmetal transistorSpinorbit torque (SO torque)What is a hole?spin polarizationCharge accumulationMgObased MTJMagnetoopticsSpin vs Orbital momentWhat is the Spin?model comparisonQuestions & AnswersEB nanotechnologyReticle 11
more Chapters on this topic:IntroductionTransport Eqs.Spin Proximity/ Spin InjectionSpin DetectionBoltzmann Eqs.Band currentScattering currentMeanfree pathCurrent near InterfaceOrdinary Hall effectAnomalous Hall effect, AMR effectSpinOrbit interactionSpin Hall effectNonlocal Spin DetectionLandau Lifshitz equationExchange interactionspd exchange interactionCoercive fieldPerpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA)Voltage controlled magnetism (VCMA effect)Allmetal transistorSpinorbit torque (SO torque)What is a hole?spin polarizationCharge accumulationMgObased MTJMagnetoopticsSpin vs Orbital momentWhat is the Spin?model comparisonQuestions & AnswersEB nanotechnologyReticle 11

Volt 54A Ta(2.5 nm)/ FeB(1.1 nm)/ MgO(6 nm)/ Ta(1 nm)/ Ru(5 nm)Measurement of magnetic and magneto transport properties of nanomagnets. Measurement data.Abstract:High precision, high reproducibility, high repeatability measurement of magnetic and magneto transport properties of ferromagnetic nanomagnets using the Hall effectHighprecision measurement of effect of spinorbit torque (SOT effect): Dependence of magnetic and magneto transport properties on electrical currentHighprecision measurement of effect of voltagecontrolled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA effect): Dependence of magnetic and magneto transport properties on a gate voltage
Measurements(measurement 1) Measurement of Hall angle vs external perpendicular magnetic field (1.2) Spinorbit torque: Measurement of dependence of Hall angle, Anomalous Hall effect (AHE), Inverse Spin Hall effect on current magnitude and polarity. (1.3) VCMA: Measurement of dependence of Hall angle, Anomalous Hall effect (AHE), Inverse Spin Hall effect on gate voltage (measurement 2) Measurement of anisotropy field vs external perpendicular magnetic field (2.1) Measurement of PMA & Anisotropy field (2.2) Spinorbit torque: ""Field like torque" ""Damp like torque". Measurement of dependence of PMA on the electrical current . (2.3) VCMA: ""Field like torque" ""Damp like torque". Measurement of dependence of PMA on gate voltage. (measurement 3) Measurement of magnetization switching under external perpendicular magnetic field Coercive field is about 40 Oe and retention time is about a few minutes. The retention time is too short for a precise measurement.
Details of Measurement Methods are here
Volt54A (Ret14) Ta(2.5 nm)/ FeB(1.1 nm)/ MgO(6 nm)/ Ta(1 nm)/ Ru(5 nm)
fabrication: Ret14 (stepper only, no EB) MgO 220C/360C Raw data Volt54A.zip (.dat files and origin 9 files) (7zip (free) download is here)Conductivity: 0.0550.06 S/m2 Anisotropy field H_{anis }=2.6~2.8 kGauss spinorbit interaction k_{SO}= 0.24 ~ 0.18 Coercive field = 20 Oe70 Oe; Hall angle measured=320 370 mdeg Intrinsic Hall angle of FeB= 1047  1211 mdeg; Gap region etched: FeB is partially etched, stopped in middle of FeB
size: all samples:nanowire width: 3 μm; nanomagnet length: 3 μm
PMA & strength of spinorbit interaction
magnetization switching parameters:
retention time τ_{ret } (gate): L68> 10^{5} s; R26> 10^{3.9} s; L34> 10^{4} s; size of nucleation domain:_{} (gate): L68> 70^{} nm; R26> 64^{} nm; L34> 70 nm coercive field H_{c}: (gate): L68> 34 G; R26>32 G R43> 26 G parameter Δ : (gate): L68> 185; R26>134; L34> 190
Since the nanowire is double layer, which consists of Ta and FeB layer, the Hall angle α_{Hall, FeB} in FeB can be calculated from measured Hall angle α_{Hall, measured} (See here) as where t_{FeB}, t_{Ta}, σ_{FeB},σ_{Ta} are thicknesses and conductivities of FeB and Ta metals.
k_{double}=3.2727
size: all samples:nanowire width: 3 μm; nanomagnet length: 3 μm
(measurement 1) Measurement of Hall angle vs external perpendicular magnetic field Hz
Fitting of Hall angleThe Hall angle α_{Hall} , its 1st derivation ∂α_{Hall}_{}/∂H_{z} and its 2d derivation ∂^{2}α_{Hall}_{}/∂H_{z}^{2} is simultaneously fitted by equation (See here) where α_{OHE}_{} is Hall angle of Ordinary Hall effect, α_{AHE}_{} is Hall angle of Anomalous Hall effect and where α_{ISHE}_{} is Hall angle of Inverse Spin Hall effect There is an ambiguity for α_{ISHE} and α_{AHE}, which depends on unknown spin polarization sp where sp is the spin polarization of conduction electrons, α_{AHE,0.5 } is α_{AHE} at sp=0.5, α_{ISHE,0.5} is α_{ISHE} at sp=0.5 result of fitting:sample:( L16B) α_{ISHE,0.5}= 395 mdeg; α_{AHE,0.5}_{}_{}= 627 mdeg; α_{OHE}=0.2 mdeg/kG; H_{p}=5.37 kG; sample:( L20) α_{ISHE,0.5}= 424 mdeg; α_{AHE,0.5}_{}_{}= 717 mdeg; α_{OHE}=0.2 mdeg/kG; H_{p}=5.35 kG; sample:( L70) α_{ISHE,0.5}= 351 mdeg; α_{AHE,0.5}_{}_{}= 695 mdeg; α_{OHE}=0.2 mdeg/kG; H_{p}=5.84 kG; sample:( R26) α_{ISHE,0.5}= 549 mdeg; α_{AHE,0.5}_{}_{}= 672 mdeg; α_{OHE}=0.2 mdeg/kG; H_{p}=6.14 kG; sample:( R66) α_{ISHE,0.5}= 405 mdeg; α_{AHE,0.5}_{}_{}= 698 mdeg; α_{OHE}=0.2 mdeg/kG; H_{p}=5.33 kG;
AHE & ISHE vs current & current polarity. SOT effectMeasurement 1. Dependence of Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) & Inverse Spin Hall effect (ISHE) on current and current polarity. Effect of SpinOrbit Torque (SOT)
Features(temperature) dependence on current magnitude(AHE vs I^{2} ): strong 4% decrease at current of 50 mA/ μm^{2}; (fig.4a) (ISHE vs I^{2} ):weak, 0.2 mdeg/kG decrease at 50 mA/ μm^{2} (fig.4b) (Spin orbit torque) dependence on current polarity(AHE(I)AHE(I)):weak (most of samples); moderate 0.6 % (samples: R41,R42) slope: negative e; saturation: at 40 mA/ μm^{2}; (fig.4c) (ISHE(I)ISHE(I)): very small (~0.1 mdeg/kG) (fig.4d)
AHE & ISHE vs gate voltage. VCMA effectMeasurement 1. Dependence of Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) & Inverse Spin Hall effect (ISHE) on gate voltage. Effect of VoltageControlled Magnetic Anisotropy (VCMA)
Features
dependence on gate voltage(AHE vs V_{gate}^{} ): moderate 0.8 % ; slope: negative; saturation: none (ISHE vs V_{gate} ): moderate 0.3 mdeg/kG; slope: positive; saturation: none (measurement 2) Measurement of anisotropy field vs external perpendicular magnetic field Hzdetails about measurement method is here and here
Spinorbit torque vs PMA
VCMA vs PMA
(measurement 3) Measurement of magnetization switching under external perpendicular magnetic field Hz
Coercive field is about 40 Oe and retention time is about a few minutes. The retention time is too short for a precise measurement.
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